Part 13: How to Grow Weed for Beginners: Glossary of Terms

18/6: Time normally associated with the vegetative stage of growth i.e. 18 hours of light to 6 of darkness.
12/12: Timing used to initiate the flowering stage of the plant i.e. 12 hours light to 12 hours darkness.
Abiotic Stress: Non-living environmental factors such as frost, drought, excessive heat, etc. that can have harmful effects on plants.
Abscisic Acid: mediates stress tolerance responses in higher plants, is a key signal compound that regulates stomatal aperture and, in concert with other plant signaling compounds, is implicated in mediating responses to pathogens and wounding. In seeds, ABA promotes seed development, embryo maturation, synthesis of storage products (proteins and lipids), desiccation tolerance, is involved in maintenance of dormancy (inhibition of germination), and apoptosis. As well, ABA affects plant architecture, including root growth and morphology, and root-to-shoot ratios
AC (alternating current): An electric current that reverses its direction at regularly occurring intervals. Homes have AC.
Achene: Seed
Acid: a source substance: An acid or sour soil has a low PH. Active a hydroponics’ system that actively moves the nutrient soil.
Aeroponic System: growing plants by misting roots suspended in air.
Aeroponics: the growing of plants in a container in which the roots are suspended in a nutrient mist rather than in a solution. The most popular container for aeroponics is an enclosed A-frame constructed of styrofoam boards. The plants are placed in holes along the sloped sides of the frame. The nutrient mist is delivered to the roots by a vaporizer or by special attachments available with drip irrigation kits. The mist clings to the roots. Any excess runs down the inside of the frame, is collected at the bottom, and is recycled back to the nutrient reservoir.
Aggregate: medium(that is usually gravel) that is all nearly the same size and used for the inert hydroponics’ medium.
Alkaline: refers to soil with a high PH. Any PH over 7 is considered alkaline.
Alternating Leaf: as the plant grows, in the beginning, every leaf(that is not damaged) will have another leaf growing from exactly 180°F(82.2°C) on/around the stem. they grow in pairs. when the plants mature, the leaves will grow one at a time. that is a leaf will pop out on one side, then, up the stem/branch, another will grow. ie alternating.
Amendments: can be considered either a organic or mineral base. Amendments change the texture of a growing medium. Asexual propagation: is producing plants from clones.
Auxins: are plant hormones governing many biological processes in higher plants such as cell enlargement and division, differentiation of vascular tissue, apical dominance, root initiation and signaling.
Ballast: a stabilizing unit that regulates the flow of electricity and start a HID lamp.
Blood Meal: This organic fertilizer is very high in nitrogen and is very soluble in water (unlike most other dry organic fertilizers). It also contains plant growth regulators. All this together means that its effect is strong and quick, but its power will only last a short while, especially in wet weather. When applying blood meal, take care, as it will easily burn a plant’s leaves.
Blossom Booster: fertilizer high in phosphorus that increases flower yield. Bolt: term used to describe a plant that is severely root bound and starved for light. The plant will grow either straight up or bolt.
Boron: chemical element, semimetal of main Group illa (boron group) of the periodic table, essential to plant growth
Breed: to sexually propagate marijuana under controlled circumstances.
Buds: The reason this website exists! -The part of the flowering female plant that contains high concentrations of THC and other psychoactive ingredients.
Bud Leaves: the small leaves that grow in the buds of the plant, usually covered in trichomes when harvested.
Buffer: a substance that reduces the shock and cushions against fluctuations. Many fertilizers contain buffer agents.
Bulbous Trichome: spherical shaped resin producing plant hair with no stalk. Calcium: chemical element, one of the alkaline-earth metals of main Group IIa of the periodic table
Calyx: the pod harboring female ovule and two protruding pistols, seed pod .
Cannabinoid: A hydrocarbon unique to cannabis.
Cannabis: scientific name for marijuana specifying genus.
Canopy: The top branches of a plant, usually shading the lower branches, except when branch training methods are used. (See LST, SCROG, and SOG)
Capitate Stalked Trichome: A resin producing plant hair , high in THC content.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2): a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas in the air necessary for plant life.
CBD/CBN: byproducts of the main physcoactive ingredient in pot, thc. these byproducts are created when the thc degrades, due to over exposure to heat/oxygen(some thc will naturally do this while the flowers rippen). it is beleived that they are resposible for the stoney part of the high, and known to have a direct effect on the physcoactive effect thc has on the “user”. it is only needed in minimal amounts, in comparison to thc.
CBD: Cannabidiol, CBD usually prolongs the high.
CBN: Cannabin
Centigrade: a scale for measuring temperature where 100 is the boiling point of eater and 0 is the freezing point of water.
CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute. This describes the volume of air that is displaced in 1 minute (see ventilation).
Chelate: combining nutrients in a atomic ring so that it is easy for plant to absorb.
Chlorophyll: the green pigment in leaves. Chlorophyll pigment is produced in the chloroplasts of leaf, stem and flower cells. Chlorophyll pigment dominates all other pigments present including the xanthophylls and carotenes. Chlorophyll captures the sun’s energy which is used to manufacture sugar from carbon dioxide and water. Chlorophylls are constantly being “used up” and thus are
continually manufacture by the plant, provided the environmental conditions are appropriate.
Chlorosis: the condition of a sick plant with yellowing leaves due to inadequate formation of Chlorophyll, Chlorosis is caused by a nutrient deficiency ,usually iron or imbalanced PH .
Cloning: the process of replicating female plants. Cloning Guide, with pics CO2 Enrichment: adding CO2 to the atmosphere of a grow room to speed growth.
Cola: a marijuana flower top.
CFL: Compact Flourescent Lighting
Compost: a mixture that consists largely of decayed organic matter and is used for fertilizing and conditioning land
Composting: The process by which organic materials mixed together in specific conditions create a nutrient-rich medium.
Cotyledon: The first leaf or one of the first pair or whorl of leaves developed by the embryo of a seed plant small round leaves that are the first to appear on a small seedling, they are not considered true leaves? and often fall off of the plant early in the growth stage.
Cubic Feet: length x width x height
Cubic Feet Per Minute: how many cubic feet ( 1FTx1FTx1FT ) a fan can replace per minute
Cure: to prepare or alter especially by chemical or physical processing for keeping or use
Curing: Process of placing the dried harvest in tightly sealed, sterile, jar, which should be stored in a dry, dark, cool place. Then  according to preference open the jar for a certain amount of time everyday to release co2 and moisture and this slowly dries the crop, thus improving taste and over all quality.
Cutting: a plant section originating from stem, leaf, or root and capable of developing into a new plant. Sometimes the easiest (and fastest) way to grow a new plant is not from seed, but asexually from cuttings. Cuttings are taken from roots, stems, or leaves and encouraged to regenerate by providing ideal growing conditions and (oftentimes) applying rooting hormones. Unlike plants started from seed, a plant grown from a cutting will have exactly the same characteristics of the parent plant (See Also – Cloning)
DC (direct current): an electric current flowing in one direction only and substantially constant in value — abbreviation DC.
Decarboxylation: This occurs after buds are harvested and during the curing process. The THC loses a CO2 molecule, which then makes the THC psychoactive. This process is why drying and curing buds after harvest is crucial to the high that the bud produces.
Deep Water Culture: easy system of hydroponics with fairly low maintenance & materials with excellent results.
Dioecious: having male reproductive organs in one individual and female in another.
Diploid: contains 2 sets of chromosomes
Dolomite: a mineral CaMg(CO3)2 consisting of a calcium magnesium carbonate found in crystals and in extensive beds as a compact limestone
Drip Line: a line around a plant directly under its outermost branches where roots seldom exceed beyond
Drip System: very efficient watering system where the water is regulated at the emitters for a regulated drip
Dry Ice: solidified carbon dioxide, when dry ice warms it releases CO2
Dry Soil Pocket: a portion of the soil that does not absorb water , wetting agents are often used as a remedy
Electrical Conductivity: E/C
Emit: give off or out (as light)
Epsom Salts: a bitter colorless or white crystalline salt MgSO4·7H2O that is a hydrated magnesium sulfate
Equinox: either of the two times each year (as about March 21 and September 23) when the sun crosses the equator and day and night are everywhere of equal length
F1: When you cross two different strains for the FIRST time, it is called the F1.
F2: When you cross two of the same F1 hybrid, it is called the F2 generation.
F3: An f3 comes from breeding an F2 to an F2 (these came from the same parents and they came from breeding F1s together).
F4: An f4 comes from breeding an F3 to an F3 (these came from the same parents and they came from breeding F2s together).
Fan Leaves: usually located exiting main stems directly under side branches, are usually the biggest & very low in potency.
Female: seed producing, pistilate.
Feminized: bred to support only Female seeds. seeds which have a higher likelihood of sprouting female.
Fertilize: a substance(as manure or a chemical mixture) used to make soil more fertile, the process of union of two subjects whereby the somatic chromosome number is restored and the development of a new individual is initiated.
FIM: The FIM technique is where you leave 10% of the top node on rather than traditionally to cut at the stem under the top node . A variant of the topping technique, where only a portion of the growth tip is removed, causing an increase in resulting cola sites. (See topping).
Fish Emulsion: This is a liquid organic fertilizer with a NPK ratio of about 4-1-1 to 7-2-2. It is water soluble and thus immediately available to plants. It is valued for its high nitrogen content.
FLIR: Acronym for Forward-Looking Infrared, it is a thermal imaging process whereby differences in heat emission are measured and reflected on a videotape. Heat concentration is indicated on a videotape on a spectrum of light to dark, with bright white showing intense heat. Increasingly, law enforcement personnel are using FLIR thermal imaging to detect indoor marijuana growing operations. However, the Supreme Court in the U.S. has recently banned the use of FLIR to find these operations.
Florescent: a tubular electric lamp having a coating of fluorescent material on its inner surface and containing mercury vapor whose bombardment by electrons from the cathode provides ultraviolet light which causes the material to emit visible light.
Flo, Flouro, Floro’s: Fluorescents come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. There are compacts, twist bulbs and circle bulbs. They all work the same way. They have a starter and ballast which help provide a steady and regulated amount of electricity to the light.
Flower: one of a seed plant differentiated into a calyx, a state of blooming
Flush: the act of cleansing a plants roots of nutrients and contaminants by giving the plant large amounts of water (usually equal to 3 times the volume of soil the plant is in).
Foliage: a representation of leaves, flowers, and branches
Foliar Feeding: The act of giving water and/or nutrients to the plant through the leaves instead of through the roots.
Force Flowering: Giving a female plant a photoperiod of 12/12 to force the plant into producing buds.
Foot Candle: a unit of luminance on a surface that is everywhere one foot from a uniform point source of light of one candle and equal to one lumen per square foot.
Fungicide: an agent that destroys fungi or inhibits their growth
Gametes/Zygotes: The gamete of the male is the pollen grain, the gamete of the female is the embryo sac. Gametes contain half of the genes of an adult plant and unite to form the zygote. After mitosis the zygote becomes the embryo of the seed.
Garlic: Planted in the same pot/area as your plants will act as a natural systemic insecticide to greenfly and blackfly the plants absorb it from the growing garlic it DOES NOT affect the plants scent or taste, can also be used for same reason with other plants.
Gene: a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located in the germ plasma usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material
Genetic Makeup: the genes inherited from the parents of the plant
Genotype: All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group
Germinate: To begin to sprout or grow
GH: General Hydroponics which is a nutrient & chemical product line
Gibberellic Acid: A hormone used to promote plant growth, especially that of seedlings, and obtained from the fungus Gibberella fujikoroi (GA) is used to reduce flowering and fruiting which maximizes growth and minimizes pollen transmitted. GA is also used in mature plants to increase the fruiting capacity by stimulating the development of lateral shoots and spurs.
GPH: Gallons Per Hour, how much a quantity of liquid a pump can push per minute
GPM: Gallons Per Minute, how much a quantity of liquid a pump can push perminute
Guano: a substance composed of the excrement (poop) of seafowl, a similar substance (as bat excrement (poop) or cannery waste) used for fertilizer
Harvesting: The act or process of gathering a crop
Hemp: a tall widely cultivated Asian herb of the mulberry family with tough bast fiber used especially for cordage, the fiber of hemp, a fiber from a plant, a plant yielding such fiber
Herbs: Aromatic plants used for seasoning, medicinal purposes, or garnishes. Aromatic herbs are the ones that have fragrant or smelly leaves or flowers.
Hermaphrodite: Hermie, (both sexes)
Hertz(Hz): a unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second
High Intensity Discharge (HID): a lighting group containing , high pressure sodium, Metal halide, mercury vapor & halogen
High Pressure Sodium (HPS): a HID light mostly in the red spectrum
Hood: the reflective cover of an HID light, lamp
Horizontal: parallel with horizon, mounting the HPS bulb side to side
Hormone: chemical substance that controls the growth & development patterns of plants. A biochemical product of a specific cell or tissue that causesa change or activity in a cell or tissue located elsewhere in an organism.
Horticulture: the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants
Humidity, Relative: the ratio of the amount of water vapor actually present in the air to the greatest amount possible at the same temperature
Humus: a complicated material formed during the breakdown of organic matter. One of its components, humic acid, provides many binding sites for plant nutrients, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sulfur and phosphorus. These nutrients are stored in the humic acid molecule in a form readily available to plants, and are released when the plants require them.
Hybrid: A hybrid is a strain made up of two genetically unlike parents, IBL or hybrid. Often refers to a plant or variety that has been developed by interbreeding two or more strains, species, or genera
Hydrogen Peroxide: an unstable compound H2O2 used especially as an oxidizing and bleaching agent, an antiseptic, and a propellant (H2O2), a colourless liquid usually produced as aqueous solutions of various strengths
Hydroponics: the growing of plants without soil, instead using a medium like clay pebbles, rockwool-floc or perlite and vermiculite mixture.
Hydroponic System: the growing of plants in nutrient solutions with or without an inert medium to provide mechanical support
Hygrometer: any of several instruments for measuring the humidity of the atmosphere
IBL: An IBL (inbred breeding line) is a genetically stable strain that grows consistent. It is a homogeneous strain that shows uniform growth characteristics from seed
Inbred: (true breed) offspring of plants with the same genetic, breed or ancestors
Indica: Indica is a great plant to grow indoors as well as outdoors due to its low lighting requirements and tight internode spacing, also offering resistance to fungus and pests, early maturation tendencies, and dense flower production. Indica’s come from colder climates exhibiting the traits described above by acclimating to the environment from whence they came. Their stout stature and extremely wide leaflets make them easy to identify. An Indica generally produces a hard hitting, tiresome, sedative stone, and will take around 45 to 60 days to finish flowering.
Induce: to move by persuasion or influence, to stimulate flowering by inducing 12 hr photoperiod
Inert: inactive, does not chemically react
Insecticide: an agent or substance that destroys insects
Intensity: the magnitude of a quantity (as force or energy) per unit
Internode: An interval or part between two nodes (as of a stem)
Interveinal: Veins
Iron(Fe): one of the basic elements needed for plant growth —
Kilowatt Hour: a unit of work or energy equal to that expended by one kilowatt in one hour or to 3.6 million joules
Lanceolate: leaf
Leach: to remove (nutritive or harmful elements) from soil by percolation b : to draw out or remove as if by percolation
Leggy: (Spindly) plant, of a disproportionately tall or long and thin appearance that often suggests physical weakness. If seedlings and plants do not get enough sunlight, they grow tall and thin stalks as they seek sunlight. These “leggy” plants have a difficult time supporting the weight of the plant and is easily damaged.
Life Cycles: the series of stages in form and functional activity through which an organism passes between successive recurrences of a specified primary stage, (seedling> vegetative> flower> harvest)
Light-burn: When the heat from a light burns the plant.
Light Mover: a light fixture that is moved on a track or wheel for balanced lighting
Lime: dolomite or hydrated lime most uses to stabilize pH of soil medium
Litmus Paper: pH testing paper triggered by chemical reaction
Loam: medium consisting of sand, clay & silt
LST: Acronym for Low-Stress Training, the technique of manipulating the branches in order to reduce plant height, expose certain branches to light, and/or distribute hormones to lower branches of the plant to encourage larger buds.
Lumen: a unit of luminous flux equal to the light emitted in a unit solid angle by a uniform point source of one candle intensity. one lumen is equal to the amount of light emitted by one candle that falls on one square foot of surface one foot away.
Macronutrient: a chemical element (as (N) nitrogen, (P) phosphorus, or (K) potassium) of which relatively large quantities are essential to the growth and health of a plant. For a plant, there are nine major elements essential for healthy growth; these are called macronutrients. They are: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (which are all three derived from air and water); and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and magnesium (from the soil).
Micronutrients: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. These are manganese, boron, copper, iron, chlorine, cobalt, molybdenum, and zinc.
Magnesium: a sulfate of magnesium: as a : a white salt MgSO4 used in medicine and in industry Epsom salts
Manganese: Manganese is essential to plant growth and is involved in the reduction of nitrates in green plants and algae.
Manicure: to trim leaves closely and evenly to the buds when harvesting
Medium: A soil or soil-less mix used to start or re-plant houseplants, flowers, vegetables, and other plants
Mercury Vapor: an electric lamp in which the discharge takes place through mercury vapor
Metal Halide(MH): The Metal Halide is a very good source of the white/blue spectrum of light that is ideal for vegetative growth. Many growers use MH during the vegetative phase. MH is bright and cost efficient to operate, but not as efficient as HPS lights. Most commonly used sizes are 400 watt and 1000 watt. Works best when used in combination with HPS lights. an HID light, emits mostly the blue spectrum & high in ultra-violet rays
Micronutrient: or trace elements, a chemical element present in minute quantities; essential to their physiology (S, Fe, Mn, B, Mb & Zn)
Molybdenum: a trace element needed for plant growth
Monochromatic: having or consisting of one color or hue
Mother Plant: female plant kept in vegetative state for using clones , cuttings & maintaining genetics
Mottling of Leaves: Discoloration or spotting of leaves.
Mulch: a organic protective covering spread on the ground to reduce evaporation, maintain even soil temperature, prevent erosion, control weeds, or enrich the soil.
MV: Mercury Vapor is the type of lights that were used for streetlights many years ago. Not very good for growing because it doesn’t provide enough of the right kind of light spectrum. While they do provide a littleof the blue spectrum, MV also produces too much heat to get very close to a plant, and are very inefficient to operate.
Nanometer: 1 billionth of a meter used to measure electromagnetic wavelengths of light
Necrosis: localized death of living tissue or leaves
Necrotic: Dead tissue
Nitrogen(N): a colorless tasteless odorless element that as a diatomic gas is relatively inert and constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume
Node: a point at which subsidiary parts originate or center b : a point on a stem at which a leaf or leaves are inserted c : a point at which a curve intersects itself in such a manner that the branches have different tangents
NPK: The elemental symbol for nitrogen is N; for phosphorus it’s P; for potassium it’s K. All three of these elements are essential for plant growth and are considered macronutrients. N, P, and K are the three principal ingredients in most fertilizers. The NPK ratio is shown by three numbers, such as 2-1-1, that reflect the percentage of each.
Nutrient: a plant food with element N, P, K, or secondary nutrients
Nutrient Film Technique: a hydroponics system (NFT) nutrient flow tables where letting nutrient flow over roots on a schedule ( Ebb & flow )
Nute-burn: the result of feeding a plant an excess of fertilizer.
Ohms Power Law: discovered that at constant temperature, the current I in a circuit is directly proportional to the potential difference V, and inversely proportional to the resistance R, or I = V/R. Resistance is generally measured in ohms (volts x amperes = watts)
Optimum: the most favorable condition for the growth and reproduction of an organism, greatest degree attained or attainable under implied or specified conditions.
Organic: of, relating to, or derived from living organisms – of, relating to, yielding, or involving the use of food produced with the use of feed or fertilizer of plant or animal origin without employment of chemically formulated fertilizers, growth stimulants, antibiotics, or pesticides
Organic Nutrients: Natural, non-synthetic nutrients.
Outbreed: the interbreeding of stocks that are relatively unrelated
Ovule: an outgrowth of the ovary of a seed plant that is a mega sporangium and encloses an embryo sac within a nucellus
Oxygen: a colorless tasteless odorless gaseous element that constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere and is found in water, in most rocks and minerals, and in numerous organic compounds, that is capable of combining with all elements except the inert gases, that is active in physiological processes
P1: Any two plants you start a breeding project with, no matter the filial generation are designated P1.
Passive system: a hydroponics system which move nutrient through absorption or capillary action
Peat Moss: The partially decomposed remains of mosses harvested commercially from the wild. Though difficult to wet initially, peat moss can absorb up to 25 times its own weight in water and is therefor valued as a an organic soil amendment. Peat moss is acidic –with a pH of about 3 or 4.0– and should only be used around acid-loving plants or to help lower the pH of alkaline soils.
Perlite: a lightweight aggregate used as a medium for potting plants, holds water. a unique volcanic mineral which expands from four to twenty times its original volume when it is quickly heated to a temperature of approximately 1600-1700°F. This expansion is due to the presence of two to six percent combined water in the crude perlite rock which causes the perlite to pop in a manner similar to that of popcorn. When expanded, each granular, snow-white particle of perlite is sterile with a neutral pH and contains many tiny, closed cells or bubbles. The surface of each particle is covered with tiny cavities which provide an extremely large surface area. These surfaces hold moisture and nutrients and make them available to plant roots. In addition, because of the physical shape of each particle, air passages are formed which provide optimum aeration and drainage. Because perlite is sterile, it is free of disease, seeds, and insects. Perlite has been used for many years throughout the world for soil conditioning and as a component of growing mixes with materials such as peat moss or bark. Extensive studies have shown that the unique capillary action of perlite makes it a superior growing media for hydroponic cultures. Among the many uses of perlite today are propagation and seed cultivation, plug production and transplants, interiorscape and planter growing, composting.
Petioles: A slender stem that supports the blade of a foliage leaf
pH: A expression on a negative log scale of 0 to 14 of the extent of acidity or alkalinity of a substance. Materials with pH 7 are neutral. Those below pH 7 are acidic and those above are caustic. Every pH unit of 1, increases or decreases the acidity by a factor of 10
pH Tester: a electronics device or chemical used to determine soil or water pH level
Phenotype: The visible properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment. generally the characteristics the plant shows, mostly Sativa or mostly Indica traits, although there’s quite a lot more that(stuff like tall/short, wide/skinny leaves, high/low THC content percentage.
Phloem: Nutrient conducting tissue.
Phosphorus(P): one of the 3 macro-nutrients that promotes flower & root growth of a plant
Photoperiod: AKA lighting schedule, it is the number of hours of light and darkness the plant is exposed to. Usually expressed as a fraction. Ex: 18/6 = 18 hours of light, and 6 hours of darkness
Photosynthesis: synthesis of chemical compounds with the aid of radiant energy and especially light, formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen (as water) in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light
Pistil: Female reproductive organs on a plant. Seen as white “hairs” at the internodes on female pot plants from the nodes/buds of a female plant, also a precursor to the buds themselves. Pistils turn from white to brown as the buds mature.
Pollen: a mass of microspores in a seed plant appearing as fine yellow dust containing male genes
Pollen sac: one of the pouches of a male seed plant in which pollen is formed
Polyploid: contains 2 or more sets of chromosomes (2 or more nodes)
Potash: Broadly, potash describes any material containing potassium. More specifically, though, potash is potassium carbonate derived from wood ashes. The term potash comes from the process of extracting lye from wood ashes in iron pots.
Potassium(K): one of the 3 macro-nutrients needed for plant life
Power Surge: interruption in electricity flow
PPM: Acronym for Parts Per Million, this term is used most in hydroponics to measure the amount of nutrients given to a plant.
Propagate: the breeding of male & female plant to produce seeds
Pyrethrum: any of several chrysanthemums with finely divided often aromatic leaves including ornamentals provide an important sources of insecticides
Regenerate: AKA re-vegging, refers to the act of putting a plant back into the growth cycle after harvesting the flowering buds off of the plant, in order to bud the plant again or to take clones off of the plant.
Relative Humidity: the ratio of the amount of water vapor actually present in the air to the greatest amount possible at the same temperature
Reverse Osmosis: a water purifying treatment, by moving of water through a semi permeable membrane reducing sediment & elements
Rock Wool: Mineral or rock wool has been used extensively in Europe and is recently finding applications in the U.S. greenhouse market. Like perlite and vermiculite, it originates from a natural mineral(alumino silicates with some calcium and magnesium) that is heated to 2,700?F to form fibers that are used to make blocks or cubes as a finished product. Blocks or slabs of rock wool are used extensively by hydroponic growers of greenhouse vegetables. Rock wool typically has an alkaline pH, is sterile and chemically inert.
Root: the parts of the plant below medium level either soil or hydroponic
Root bound: or Pot bound , meaning roots have overtaken the majority of the pot supplied usually resulting in slower growth A condition where a plant or seedling’s roots have grown compacted and entwined in the pot and has no room to grow. This condition results in stunting the plants growth and potential. The solution is a larger pot or transplanting outdoors.
Root Hormone: a fertilizer directly targeting root growth
Ruderalis: Ruderalis is not a very good choice for flower production, indoors or out. Despite maintaining a short stature, growing only one to five feet tall, and maturing rather quickly, Ruderalis just doesn’t produce the yield or quality one looks for in their flowers. A slight light cycle reduction can trigger a sprout with as little as 2 to 3 leaf sets to flower. Ruderalis spontaneously initiates flowering a few weeks after sprouting, and will not produce decent flowers unless the photoperiod provides around 18 to 19 hours of light. Even then, the yield and quality are less than desirable, incomparable to that of the Sativa or Indica subspecies.
S1: self pollinated – a hermie
Sativa: Sativa is a hard plant to grow indoors due to high lighting requirements, tall stature, and late flowering traits. Sativas come from equatorial regions, thus the neccesity for high ammounts of lighting and a warmer tropic-subtropic climate. You can identify a Sativa by its long, slender, finger-like leaves. A Sativa will typically produce a euphoric, energetic, cerebral high. Despite the Sativa’s climatic limitations, they are truly a reward to obtain, grow, and smoke. A pure Sativa will take 2 to 4 months to finish flowering.
Salt: crystalline compound that is due to different pH levels or build up of fertilizer which can lead to toxic levels & will prevent nutrient uptake
Screen Of Green: a method of growing using a screen at a certain level to stop all flowering ends of plant at the same level for their maximum yield (confined space, or low lighting levels etc.) The purpose of ScrOG is to maximize your usage of the available space and lighting by training the new growth of a plant into a screen or mesh.
Sea Of Green: a method of growing keeping all plants short with the intention of getting more yield by flowering more plants (in volume)
Secondary Nutrients: (Ca) Calcium & (Mg) magnesium
Seed: or Achene; a mature, fertilized, ovule of a pistilate shell harboring an embryo capable normally of germination to produce a new plant;
Sex: The act of determining the gender of a plant by giving it a photoperiod of 12/12.
Seed Casing: The integuments of the ovule, which are the ovule’s old coverings, harden and become the seed’s protective coat
Sinsemilla: highly potent marijuana from female plants that are specially tended and kept seedless by preventing pollination in order to induce a high resin content
Sepal: Sepals are components of the calyx. Located at the base of the flower, these modified leaves usually function as protection for the petals while in bud stage. Occasionally, sepals will be colored, but they are usually green
Soilless Mix: a growing medium containing mineral like vermiculite, perlite, pumice, sand & peat moss usually intended for a quick draining flushable medium
Soluble: susceptible or capable of being dissolved in or as if in a liquid or water
Spindly: (Leggy) plant, of a disproportionately tall or long and thin appearance that often suggests physical weakness
Square Feet(Sq. Ft.): length X width
Stamen: the pollen-producing male organ of a flower that consists of an anther and a filament
Staminate: having or producing stamens
Stigma: The sticky tip of a pistil.
Stomata: one of the minute openings in the epidermis of a plant organ (as a leaf) through which gaseous interchange (breathing) takes place
Strain: Linage, Ancestry, a group of plants of presumed common ancestry with clear-cut physiological but usually not morphological distinctions refers to the specific genetics of the plant. Example: White Widow, Northern Lights.
Stress: Any unhealthy stimuli the plant receives. Examples: Light-burn, overwatering, nutrient burn. Stress can cause slow growth, mutations, or death.
Sun Leaves: AKA fan leaves, these are the large leaves that grow off of branches, and while not rich in THC, they play an important role in photosynthesis.
Synthetic Nutrients: AKA Chemical nutrients, concentrated and industrialmade nutrients. They have a longer shelf-life than organic nutes, but are known to nutrient burn a plant more quickly.
Tap Root: the root growing vertically from the seed that grows lateral roots from it.
Tetraploid: contains 4 sets of chromosomes (4 nodes)
THC: tetrahydrocannabinol, a physiologically active chemical C21H30O2 from hemp plant resin that is the chief intoxicant in marijuana – obtained from cannabis or made synthetically, that is the primary intoxicant in marijuana and hashish. b. The main physcoactive ingredient in pot. this is what gets you “high!”. it is often(not totally accurately) measured by the trichomes(fairy dust) visible on pot.
Thermostat: an automatic device for regulating temperature
Topping Method: used to increase yield and maximize space, by trimming off the top bud. Traditionally, topping your plant causes two
Total Dissolved Solids, TDS meter: a meter used for measuring PPM of a liquid
Trace elements: or Micronutrient, a chemical element present in minute quantities; essential to their physiology (S, Fe, Mn, B, Mb & Zn)
Transformer: a device employing the principle of mutual induction to convert variations of current in a primary circuit into variations of voltage and current in a secondary circuit
Transpire: to give off or exude watery vapor especially from the surfaces of leaves
Transplant: to lift and reset (a plant) in another soil medium or situation
Transplantation Shock: When transplanting seedlings from one place to another, the roots are often disturbed and occasionally the change in climate can cause the plant to slow down or appear to stop growing. This is transplant shock. It is really redirecting it’s energy to re-grow lost roots and to get accustomed to a change in temperature that it hadn’t experienced before.
Trichomes: AKA crystals or sugar, they are tiny, mushroom-shaped capitulate glands full of THC that form on the flowering buds and bud leaves of cannabis.
Triploid: contains 3 sets of chromosomes (3 nodes)
True Breed: Inbred, offspring of plants with the same genetic, breed or ancestors
Ultraviolet: light beyond the visible spectrum at its violet end with very short wavelengths
Vascular: Refers to the xylem and phloem tissues, which conduct water and nutrients through the plant body.
Vegetative: the growth stage at which the plant produces primarily new green chlorophyll growth prior to flowering stage
Ventilation: Circulating air in order to provide the plant with fresh air and/or to reduce the temperature in the grow area. Air movement also encourages strong stems.
Vermiculite: any of various micaceous minerals that are hydrous silicates resulting usually from expansion of the granules of mica at high temperatures to give a lightweight highly water-absorbent material is sterile and light in weight (5 to 8 lbs/ft3). The pH of vermiculite will vary depending on where it is mined. Most U.S. sources are neutral to slightly alkaline, whereas vermiculite from Africa can be quite alkaline (pH = 9). Vermiculite is used extensively in the greenhouse industry as a component of mixes or in propagation. It is usually sold in four size grades: #1 is the coarsest and #4 the smallest. The finer grades are used extensively for seed germination or to topdress seed flats. Expanded vermiculite should not be pressed or compacted, especially when wet, as this will destroy the desirable physical properties.
Vertical: perpendicular to the plane of the horizon or to a primary axis or in the upright position
Vitamin B: thiamine, a vitamin (C12H17N4OS)Cl of the B complex that is essential to normal metabolism and nerve function and is widespread in plants
Watering Schedule: term referring to how often and how much water a plant is given, usually measured in days and gallons. Ex: 1 gallon every 4 days.
Watts: A measure of the amount of electricity flowing through a wire. Watt hours measure the amount of watts used in one hour. A kilowatt/hour (KWH) is 1000 watt/hours.
Wetting Agent: a substance that by becoming adsorbed prevents a surface from being repellent to a wetting liquid and is used especially in mixing solids with liquids or spreading liquids on surfaces
Wick: to carry (as moisture) by capillary action
Worm Casting: (Vermiconversion) or using earthworms to convert waste into soil additives, is a biologically active mound containing thousands of bacteria, enzymes, and remnants of plant materials and animal manures that were not digested by the earthworm. The composting process continues after a worm casting has been deposited. In fact, the bacterial population of a cast is much greater than the bacterial population of either ingested soil, or the earthworm’s gut. An important component of this dark mass is humus.
Zinc: is an essential micronutrient for both plants
Zygotes/Gametes: The gamete of the male is the pollen grain, the gamete of the female is the embryo sac. Gametes contain half of the genes of an adult plant and unite to form the zygote. After mitosis the zygote becomes the embryo of the seed.